historical geopolitical simulation

Belgrade, Vračar municipality, 9-12 december 2015
Russian Empire- Pavle Veličković, Konstantin Magdić, Uroš Kusturić
France- Nemanja Bezarević, Petar Adžić, Filip Simović
United Kingdom- Nemanja Dojčinović, Nikola Jelikić, Bogoljub Debeljković
Ottoman Empire- Aleksa Milenković, Vidan Bogdanović
Austrian Empire- Luka Bosanac, Stefan Grnčarski
Prussia- David Vučinić, Pavle Vučetić, Stefan Stanimirović
Spain- Irina Stojanović
Portugal- Aleksa Despić (1852-1858); Lenka Bajčetić (from 1858)
Sardinia- Nikola Radonjić
Kingdom of two Sicilies- Jovan Ivić
Sweden- Novak Drašković
Denmark- Milorad Stevović
The Papal State- Rastko Pocesta
Bavaria- Marko Gajinović
Saxony- Stefan Stanimirović (1853-1855); Luka Pušić (from 1855)
Hannover- Nikolina Tintor
Greece- Miša Vacić
Serbia- Predrag Prokopić
Walachia- Aleksandar Balan
Moldavia- Branislav Atanackov
The Netherlands- Lazar Milin
Belgium- Stefan Crnojević
Norway- Katarina Karan
Polish national government- Luka Pušić

Overview of the history of the congress:
In 1852. two crises emerged in Europe. First event that shook the European halls of power was the death of the Saxon king at the hands of the German nationalist, who rose in rebellion. The second contentious event was the unification of Belgium and Netherlands, which upset the balance of power in Western Europe. The differences between the major powers concerning these issues lead to the formation of two antagonistic alliances. On one hand, Russia, France and Prussia were supporting the ascension of a Prussian prince to the Saxon throne, by right of blood. This alliance also vigorously supported the unification of Belgium and Netherlands. United Kingdom, Austria and Turkey, on the other hand, advocated for the ascension of an exiled Polish prince to the Saxon throne (on the grounds of the old Polish-Saxon personal union from 18th century) and rejected any notion of a Belgium-Netherlands unification agreement. These differences proved to be irreconcilable and Austria, in protest left the German Confederacy and unilaterally installed their candidate to the Saxon throne, by force of arms. However, despite immense casualties, Austria doesn’t succeed in taking Saxony, which remains in Prussian hands. This in turn led to a chain reaction of defensive and offensive alliances which geared Europe for the incoming Great war. The Ottoman Empire, United Kingdom, Italian states and Portugal supported Austria and joined her side in preparation for the ensuing conflict. Spain allowed French troops into their territory, as a protective measure against the looming UK-Portugal threat to its security. This alliance apart from being hostile to Prussia, quickly set their sights on Russia. United Kingdom, Austria and The Ottoman Empire agreed to jointly check Russian expansion into the straits, with their combined fleets. In Scandinavia, Sweden utilized the relative isolation of Denmark to procure an alliance with Russia. The Russians in return for fleet basing rights and military access, supported Sweden in its aim to conquer Denmark and unite Scandinavia under one crown. France, Prussia and Russia were moving ever closer to each other. The stage was set for a Great European War.

The Great European war erupted in 1853. United Kingdom declared war on France and Spain. The Italian states proclaim their unification under the Neapolitan king. The flames of war engulf the Balkans as well. Greece, thinking that the Ottomans are weak, declares war and begins a forced march to Thessaloniki. Austria declares war on Greece, in support of their Ottoman ally. Walachia and Moldavia use the tumultuous situation in Greece and declare unification, by forming Romania. Serbia, placed between two allied empires, cautiously decides to remain a vassal to the Ottomans and allows Austrian troops access to its territory. Russia marches her armies to the Balkans in support of Romania and Greece. In Central Europe; Prussia, Hannover and Holland-Belgium proclaim the formation of The German Reich. This entity promptly joins coopts Sweden-Norway and Bavaria, thus forming The Germanic Confederacy, with the Prussian king as its monarch. Each state retained autonomy on internal matters, while foreign policy was formed jointly, albeit under Prussian leadership. In the East, Polish nationalists manage to conquer Chernowitz, proclaiming the formation of the Kingdom of Ruthenia. The fledgling state was quickly overwhelmed by the invading Romanian troops. In 1854 Austria mobilizes its troops and declares war on The Germanic Confederacy, while France invades Italy. The Italians counterattack and manage to seize Dijon, however they are quickly repelled. Italy quickly goes to the defensive, with bitter fighting and horrendous casualties on both sides. With the war becoming increasingly vicious; Spain, France, Russia and The Germanic Confederacy formally sign an alliance treaty. Romania quickly joins this alliance.

1855 bring with it a revolution in Saxony. The Prussian dynasty is overthrown and a new king is placed on the Saxon throne, the exiled Polish prince, supported by Austria and the Pope. However, the new king quickly turned on his benefactors, pledging allegiance to the Prussian king and the Germanic Confederacy. Russia enters the Balkan theater and declares war on the Ottoman Empire and its vassal, Serbia. In Scandinavia, Denmark annexes Schleswig-Holstein and faces off with Hanoverian troops. In the following year, Denmark is attacked from the north by Sweden-Norway. The siege of Copenhagen is brutal, but the Danes are relentless and resilient, managing to hold one despite overwhelming odds. The Moldovan-Wallachian union breaks apart, with Moldavia choosing the Ottoman, and Wallachia the Russian side. Austria, Turkey and Russia declare war on Walachia. Meanwhile, Greece manages to take Thessaloniki and signs a separate truce with Austria. Serbia, informed of the advancing Russian army, switches sides. Serbia declares independence, declares war on the Ottomans and signs an alliance treaty with Russia. Within a year Serbian troops seize Skopje (Uskup) andlay siege to Sarajevo. Russia declares war on Austria at the beginning of 1857.

1857 starts with a resounding victory in Venice, where Bavarian troops overwhelm the Austrian defenders. Italy is forced to sign a peace treaty with France after two years of heavy fighting and great losses in manpower. In Spain, a diplomatic insult, from the mouth of the Portuguese ambassador aimed at the queen herself, rallies the Spanish public. Spain declares war on Portugal and within a year annihilates the Portuguese army and seizes all major cities. The remaining Portuguese soldiers, disillusioned with the monarchy, retreat to the mountains and proclaim a socialist revolution, led by Lenka Bajcetic, a noblewoman turned revolutionary. Despite call for negotiations the Spanish troops ruthlessly crush the Portuguese revolutionaries and fully annex the country. In Istanbul, due to the disastrous war, the government is toppled, and western educated students and officers declare a socialist republic. The Sultan remains the head of state and the caliph, while in effect power resides within the revolutionary council.

In 1858 Austria is in complete disarray. The Emperor abdicates and leaves all matters of state and war to his regent. Bavaria takes Vienna, Saxony occupies Trieste and Russian forces advance through Ruthenia. Austria seemed to be doomed. However a disagreement between Bavaria and Prussia over the division Austria escalated into civil war. Holland-Belgium takes the Bavarian side, while Saxony stands with Prussia. Germany erupts into civil war. In the Balkans, Moldavian troops take Bucharest from Wallachia. In 1859 United Kingdom sends an expeditionary fleet to relieve the besieged Danes in Copenhagen and declares war on Sweden-Norway and Hannover. Austria signs a peace treaty with Russia. In Athens, Greece, Serbia, Russia and Wallachia form a political union called Third Roman Empire, as a confederacy of nations, under the Russian tsar. After taking Portugal, Spain quickly seizes Gibraltar and uses its fleet to block noncommercial traffic through the strait. The Iberian Peninsula is united under one queen. British intelligence supports a socialist revolution in Holland-Belgium and new government aligns itself with London. Bavaria, isolated, comes back to the fold of the Germanic Confederacy.

In 1860 Moldavia joins the Third Roman Empire, as well as Austria. This reinvigorated alliance declares war on the Ottoman Empire. The two great confederacies, Germanic confederacy and Third Roman Empire, come to blows over the division of Austria. However, the dispute is quickly settled and the brief war comes to an end. The Treaty of Vienna gives Russia Trieste and Cernovitz, while Germanic confederacy gains Vienna and Venice. Austria remains impendent with just two major cities, Brno and Budapest, and the provinces which these cities controlled. Austria would serve as a buffer zone between the two great powers. In Naples, a socialist revolution occurs and the Italian Social Republic is declared. The socialist states convene in Geneva and form The Socialist International. This alliance includes: United Kingdom, Turkey, Holland-Belgium, Italy and Palestine (lead by the Portuguese revolutionaries, a safe haven for all socialist revolutionaries, given autonomy by Turkey). A congress of great powers convenes in Geneva to discuss European wide peace. While the congress is ongoing, Prussia attacks Munich and seizes the city. Bavaria is overrun by Prussian troops. The Bavarian king, shocked and dismayed by the news has a nervous breakdown in Geneva, where he was supposed to represent the interests of the Germanic Confederation. The Prussian king, with is guards, storms the halls of the congress and claps the Bavarian king in irons. The Bavarian king is sent to the Berlin dungeon, and the Prussian king continues the negotiations in his stead. While the congress is ongoing European politics take another unexpected turn. The French army disembarks near London and begins a surprised assault on the city. The news reaches the negotiating parties and France, with renewed strength, demands territorial concessions from the United Kingdom. After grueling negotiations the Congress of Geneva came to the following conclusions:
1. Austria will remain neutral and its sovereignty within the regions of Brno and Budapest is confirmed
2. Denmark is also accepted as a neutral state retaining its original territories. Danish sovereignty over Schleswig-Holstein is confirmed
3. Third Roman Empire receives Constantinople, Thessaloniki and Sarajevo. These three territories will be administered by Russia, Greece and Serbia, respectively as equal confederate units with the Third Roman Empire. Skopje remains under formal Turkish sovereignty. However, it is demilitarized and administered by an international peace force. Turkey receives monetary compensation for the territories it has lost.
4. United Kingdom was forced to relinquish its hold over Sardinia and return it to Italy. Italy is declared a neutral state, by a consensus of great powers. La Manche( The English channel) is demilitarized with no state allowed to have a naval presence in the channel. United Kingdom is forced to pay war reparations to France
With the signing of the Geneva accords peace was once again restored to Europe. All parties signed the treaty except for Turkey. An international expeditionary force imposed the Congress’s will by force of arms. The results can be seen in the following map: